Dog reactivity is a term that every pet owner should be familiar with, especially those who’ve been on the receiving end of a lunging, barking, or snapping canine. Despite its prevalence, reactivity in dogs is often misunderstood. It’s essential to differentiate between aggression and reactivity and to understand the triggers, so you can adopt an effective management strategy. 

Let’s take a journey into the complexities surrounding reactivity in dogs, as well as why it occurs and how to deal with it.

What is Reactivity in Dogs?

Reactivity in dogs refers to an exaggerated or overly intense response to specific stimuli in their environment. It’s crucial to note that reactivity is not the same as aggression, although the behaviours may look similar to the untrained eye. Unlike aggressive dogs, reactive dogs like German Shepherds or Heelers, they don’t necessarily have the intent to harm; they are often reacting out of fear, frustration, or over-excitement.

Types of Reactivity

Leash Reactivity

This is one of the most common forms of reactivity. Dogs may bark, lunge, or growl when on a leash but behave completely differently when off-leash. This type of reactivity often stems from frustration or the feeling of being restrained.

Barrier Reactivity

This happens when dogs react to stimuli while behind a physical barrier like a fence, window, or car window. The behaviour is often similar to leash reactivity, where the dog might bark, lunge, or display other reactive behaviours.

Fear-based Reactivity

Dogs that have had inadequate socialisation or traumatic experiences may show reactivity out of fear. These dogs often display reactive behaviours to fend off what they perceive as a threat, aiming to increase distance between themselves and the trigger.

Excitement Reactivity 

In some instances, dogs can become reactive out of sheer excitement. For example, some dogs may bark and pull on the leash when they see a squirrel or another dog they want to play with.

Predatory Reactivity

Though less common, some dogs display reactivity that stems from their predatory instincts. This form of reactivity is often directed towards smaller animals and can be especially challenging to manage.

The Signs and Symptoms

Here are some of the most common signs that your dog may be reactive:

  • Barking excessively
  • Lunging on the leash
  • Growling or snarling
  • Raised hackles
  • Ears pinned back or forward
  • Tense body posture
  • Pacing or inability to settle

Causes of Reactivity


Some dog breeds are naturally more prone to reactivity, usually because they have been bred for specific traits like guarding, herding, or hunting.

Lack of Socialisation

Dogs that haven’t been properly socialised during their formative weeks are more likely to develop reactivity issues. They may not have had adequate exposure to various stimuli, making them more prone to react when encountering new or unexpected situations.

Previous Trauma

Dogs with a history of abuse or neglect may display reactivity as a form of self-protection.

Environmental Factors

An overstimulating environment can contribute to a dog’s reactivity. For example, city dogs exposed to constant noise and activity may become more reactive.

Reactivity Management Strategies

Behavioural Training

Positive reinforcement is key. Rewarding the dog for calm behaviour while slowly introducing them to the stimulus can be effective. Techniques like “BAT” (Behaviour Adjustment Training) or “LAT” (Look At That) are commonly employed by trainers.

Counter-conditioning and Desensitisation

This involves changing the dog’s emotional response to the trigger by associating it with positive experiences. The process needs to be gradual and should ideally be guided by a certified animal behaviourist.


In severe cases, vets may recommend anti-anxiety medications to help manage your dog’s reactivity.

Environmental Management

Minimise exposure to known triggers, especially during the early stages of treatment, to give your behavioural interventions the best chance of success.

Consult a Professional

If reactivity persists, consult a veterinary behaviourist for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan tailored specifically for your dog.

Misconceptions about Reactivity

While we’re here, we can debunk a few common misconceptions about reactivity:

  • It’s Not About Dominance: Contrary to some outdated theories, reactivity is not a sign that your dog is trying to establish dominance over you or other dogs.
  • Not Just a “Phase”: Without proper management and training, reactivity is unlikely to be just a passing phase. It can become a long-term behavioural issue if not addressed.
  • Not All Barks Are the Same: Barking in reactive dogs is often misconstrued as simple nuisance barking. However, the barking in reactive dogs serves a different function and is a symptom of an underlying issue that needs to be addressed.


Understanding and managing reactivity in dogs is crucial for ensuring a harmonious relationship between your pet and the world around them. While it can be a challenging issue to tackle, armed with the right knowledge and tools, it is often possible to mitigate these behaviours. Early intervention is crucial, so if you observe signs of reactivity in your dog, consult a professional for diagnosis and a personalised treatment plan.

By adopting a comprehensive approach to treatment and management, dog owners can make significant strides in reducing or even eliminating reactivity, making life with their dog an enjoyable experience rather than a stressful ordeal.

By efa

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *